Canon as it relates to The Elder Scrolls is the concept that a fundamental set of games, texts, or other publications constitutes a body of knowledge about the series that is inherently worth a greater level of consideration than works published by other parties. Although the "canonical authors" of the series are generally accepted to be any ZeniMax Media company, including Bethesda Softworks, the term is intentionally ambiguously defined by the game developers and has been a source of contention among the wider community for this reason. In February 2014, Michael Kirkbride released C0DA, an influential but controversial text rejecting the concept as a whole. The Elder Scrolls Wiki does not endorse the use of the term "canon," instead opting to classify documents based on their licensing status.
To understand canon and continuity, the overall Elder Scrolls series should be looked at as a set of stories written by many different people which "document" historical "events." Although some stories are more reliable than others, they all are looked upon as part of the overall "history." It should also be remembered that all of these stories are simply that—stories. There are numerous errors that inevitably arise between the stories simply because different authors have their own ways of telling the story and may not have the time and resources to perfectly align the details.
The situation can be compared to Greek and Roman mythology, or the stories of King Arthur. The various Elder Scrolls tales are a group of separate but linked stories, and are told by many different authors over a period of time.
Canon and gamesEdit
Things are a bit more complicated with the matter of The Elder Scrolls games. For the purposes of content documentation on the wiki, the overall scenario and documentation (cutscenes, manuals, strategy guides etc.) are considered to be proper canon. This, however, doesn't apply to "game mechanics" and stats.
- Game mechanics are the "artistic license" properties of the game that separate any computer game from reality and serve to make one more playable and enjoyable. For example, the Hero of Kvatch carrying 10 weapons simultaneously; fully and immediately recovering from wounds simply by waiting for an hour; or bodies of defeated enemies disappearing, etc. are not realistically possible. Health, Magic points, and fatigue are also game mechanics.
- Background or lore information given in the strategy guides such as biographies, stories, descriptions, etc. is proper canon. Stats, on the contrary, are considered game mechanics and include details such as weapon damage, speed, and character stats (strength, intelligence, endurance, health points, etc.).
- In mission and quest solving, canon is assumed to be the fullest and best outcome possible of each mission/quest available as given in the briefing or scenario. The Nerevarine, Hero of Kvatch, Last Dragonborn, etc. never failed their quests. Although the player can avoid some optional quests, TESWiki assumes that those heroes managed to complete all the "available" feats.
- Problems can arise with customizable options such as the race, gender, or alignment of the main character, until Bethesda releases a definite answer on this. If the race or gender of a character is considered canon, then in-game events and characters that are "triggered" when the non-canonical gender or alignment is selected are non-canon as well. Exceptions are made if a higher canon source, such as a book, state it as happening. In that case, the game is inconsistent to the canon and falls under the "game mechanic" logic.
- TESWiki articles assume that the player picks the good choice for all scenarios; therefore, the secondary choices and events pertaining to the evil choice or triggered by relevant choices are considered non-canon.
- On the other hand, ambiguity is maintained when it comes to alternative choices and solutions to puzzles with the same outcome. For example: in The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, which Daedric artifact is given to Martin in the main quest is up to the player, and none of them can be taken for sure to be the "true" one.
Developer comments on canonEdit
The following archive attempts to document various developer quotes on the subject of canonicity and, by extension, the nature of the lore as a whole. While discussing the topic, developers have in different moments completely contradicted each other and even themselves. Bethesda's ultimate position on canonicity in The Elder Scrolls is subsequently dubious.
Is the Creation Club canon? (10/03/17) (UESP Discord server, #skyrim)
What's Bethesda's relationship to lore and canon? (10/26/17) (UESP Discord server, #lore)
What about items from other games? Are those canon, too? (10/26/17) (UESP Discord server, #lore)
Talking about the Lessons of Vivec, why did you write Sermon Zero? Should it be interpreted as being official lore?
One of the most common questions I get about The Elder Scrolls Online is whether its lore is considered canon in [the] broader Elder Scrolls [universe]. [Is it?]
How will the books and texts released after Morrowind (e.g. Vehk's Teachings) and the teasers and reports before Oblivion (e.g. Nu-Mantia Intercept, Love Letter from the Fifth Era, etc.) be folded into the official lore and will this lore appear in-game? Was the 'Trial of Vivec' RP (which culminated in the banishing of Azura from Mundus) a semi-official conclusion of the Morrowind storyline, or can we expect to learn more of its connection to recent events, along with the true fate of Vivec/Vehk?
Does Bethesda consider Obscure Texts and developer comments as "actual lore" or "canon"?(24/11/11)
Which is the canon ending to the Civil War in Skyrim? The Imperials or the Stormcloaks?
I think we had an email conversation a couple months back; you were talking about how you relate lore to real-world history. Can you talk about how you look at the lore with The Elder Scrolls?
"Yeah, I think it's important that when you look at any—I think people want the answers, always, like, 'What is Truth?'—but what is Truth in the history of Earth? Truth is often written by the winners, and that there are always different perspectives on what happened in history, and so we do take that approach with the lore in Elder Scrolls, where all perspectives can be correct. But which one is more correct? That's why we get in these debates over, 'Hey, what is Truth?' And so, for us, it's sort of a priority. The truth in Elder Scrolls, primarily, is what you saw on the screen."Like, you can read a thousand books and say, 'There are no dragons,' and if a dragon comes up on the screen, well, you saw it happen in a game. But it's not just the current games; we've got to go back to Arena, and then what was on the screen in Arena? What was on the screen in Daggerfall? What was in the manual? You know, there's things where, in the manual of Arena—I think that's where they mentioned Sithis and the Dark Brotherhood—so that, for us, kind of trumps, well, these other references to what the Dark Brotherhood worships. And it is hard to keep track of all of that, but that's what gives it that kind of realistic for what it is flavor."
What are some of your opinions on fan theories out there?
So does that mean the flavor text in the new cookbook is canon? The author said she wasn't sure.
What is it that makes The Elder Scrolls so unique and appealing to you? I.E. lore wise, gameplay wise, open-ended nature, etc.
"If there are so many radically different accounts of certain historical events, how can any researcher possibly tell which accounts are true and which are not? Furthermore, does this not mean that there is no unanimously accepted history of Tamriel?"
[In reference to a supposed database used by Mark Nelson and others to keep track of the "canonical" lore internally.]
"Elder Scrolls is different from most fantasy campaign worlds, right? I mean, the typical paradigm, you know - George RR Martin with Westeros, Tolkien with Middle Earth, the familiar D&D worlds of The Forgotten Realms or the world of Greyhawk - those all have histories and backgrounds that are all laid out and they've all got some lore-daddy who decided everything and everything is 'this is how it is', so everything works within the envelope of things that are already decided.
"Elder Scrolls - Tamriel - does not follow that paradigm. In Elder Scrolls, all lore is delivered not from on high by revelation, but from people who live their lives in the game, in the world of the game, and based on their beliefs. So that does two things for us: It means the lore always carries not just information about what the person is talking about, but also information about the person and their culture. Because the way the lore is delivered tells you how they believe things actually work in the world."What this means, of course, is that people have different viewpoints - these viewpoints sometimes contradict each other, and so sometimes we have players saying "alright, this person believes that, and that person believes this other thing, but which one's the real thing?" Well… it's not a world like ours. In a world like ours, where you can sort of trust in science and say "well yes, people have different beliefs but I know there is an objective reality." This is a world of myth. This is a world where reality is actually changeable, where the Divines can change not only what happens going forward, but what has happened in the past. So, you know, the idea there is an objective reality behind all these different people's opinions is not necessarily the case in the world of Tamriel. So listen to what all these different people have to say, make up your own mind, make up your own beliefs about what happened and you're as liable - since you're playing in their world and you're playing a character in their world - what you think happened is as legitimate as what that NPC thinks."
"Tamriel is a world where all history, past and future, is described in the ever-shifting texts of the mysterious Elder Scrolls, which tell always of what might be rather than of what is. And this is a uniquely suitable setting for a multiplayer online game that hosts players of many cultures and backgrounds. What could be better for characters in a role-playing game than an expansive world of many different cultures, each with its own history and myths, so you can be whoever you want to be? That sounds great—but what should your character believe is really true? Since all the stories of this world come from characters in the setting itself, and you can listen to them and read their books, you can decide that for yourself. And whatever that is, it's as right as any other character's beliefs, player or non-player, because your character lives in the same world they do.
"And what your character does, and says, and believes, becomes part of that world. For you, and whoever else shares the experience, what happened is now part of the lore. The non-player characters are all there, ready to share their stories with you, but it's you who makes those stories live, because your character has agency and meaningful choices where the NPCs do not. Moreover, what your character does persists for you, and the stories you’ve told and the experiences you've shared with your friends live on in your own memories. You just added to the history of Tamriel."And not just in your memories, because Tamriel is a world that continues in constant development, and where that world goes next depends upon what you did and how you reacted to it! The game devs pay close attention to what you liked and what you didn't. Recurring characters like Razum-dar and Naryu Virian don’t come back because the game devs think they should, they recur because YOU told the game devs that your experiences with those characters were significant and memorable. What you do in Tamriel, and how you feel about what you did, steers the direction of future development."
Kind of an interesting question, that also got posted on the forums… I guess from a lore perspective, would we ever consider community written, or community inspired, lore. Like having them be part of the process in a way, or do we strictly keep it pretty in house.
"We keep it in house, for the most part, because we don't want to, you know, step on anybody's toes. We don't want to steal things from people. And I think we've got a lot of really great ideas now. That said, one of the cool things is that when we create something, there's a response to that. And that response is almost never what we expect. Which is really neat. When I did Truth in Sequence, which is the Sotha Sil sermons or whatever, I had a very clear idea of what I was getting across. "This is obvious," whatever. And then it made it out into the world, and all the folks out there in the lore community were picking it to pieces and saying "it could mean this, or it could mean this," and I was just blown away. I was like, "oh my god, it totally could mean that!" [...]
"It's amazing. It's this weird, kind of miraculous thing that happens, where you create something, and you send it off into the world, and it lives its own life, and people look at it and they interpret it one way or they interpret it another. [...] As writers, it's our job to create things that people can debate. If we create something, and we say, you know, "this is absolutely how it is," and we write this solid, irrefutable thing, then we failed. Because then people say, "that's clearly the truth," and the debate is over. [...]"It's a fine line. You want to provide lore that's interesting and that people can really think about, but you also want to use a light touch and let people come to their own conclusions. When somebody sees something in a way that's fundamentally different from a way that I see it, but I wrote it, that's really encouraging. That means that we've done something right."
What advice did outgoing Loremaster Lawrence Schick give you before he left? Did he pass on his hat, literally?
You've mentioned that you read fan theories and works frequently - has one ever inspired you to add something based on it, or made you change something you were working on?
"Not consciously, no. I've had my head in TES lore for a long time, and my theories are pretty much locked down at this point. But this kind of leads into the points Lawrence made in his farewell address. Even as the Loremaster, my personal theories and perspectives on the lore are not authoritative. Good lore should allow ample room for interpretation and debate. If I write something that brooks no opposition and comes off as totally irrefutable, I think I've failed as a writer."What I find really miraculous is how people can take a piece of text that I've written and find something in it that I never even considered. I'm a firm believer in the idea that art exists on its own, separate from the artist. The intentions of the writer — while potentially interesting — are ultimately kind of irrelevant. What matters is the text itself. So, when I see a fan lay out a compelling argument that is A) totally consistent with existing lore and the text itself, and B) completely at odds with my own thoughts of the subject, it's an amazing feeling. Every answer we provide should prompt more questions. Questions lead to contemplation and debate. Keeping that excitement and exploration going is basically the whole reason we do this stuff!"
How much is your work influenced by the community?
In his farewell letter, Lawrence Schick mentioned how "the lore is yours." Do you have anything you'd like to add or amend to that sentiment?
"I think it's spot-on. Even as the Loremaster, my personal interpretations of the lore are not authoritative. It's our job to provide multiple, conflicting perspectives and encourage people in the community to draw their own conclusions. How you choose to connect those dots (or not connect them) is entirely up to you."All creative enterprises—books, movies, games, etc—should ideally serve as jumping off points for the next great idea. When you lock an idea in amber and insist that it remain exactly the same, and that it conform to your personal preferences, you're basically strangling it to death. The Elder Scrolls belong to everyone, and as long as we provide inspiration for your creative expression and fan-debates, I'd say we're doing the job well."
[Posted from his personal Twitter account.]
[In reference to questions about intentionally ambiguous aspects of the lore]
What are your thoughts on the more obscure aspects of lore, like Michael Kirkbride's writings and forum roleplays?
The following quotations, while from official sources, have unknown authorship.
- @TESOnline – The Elder Scrolls Online
- ↑ UESP's PAX Interview with Matt Firor
- ↑ Elder Scrolls Online IS CANON LORE & So Is TES Legends
- ↑ Oblivion:Fan Interview III
- ↑ Pete Hines on Twitter (3 January 2011)
- ↑ Others: Matt Grandstaff, Pete Hines, Christiane Meister, Shane Liesegang, and unknown
- ↑ Pete Hines on Twitter (9 February 2018)
- ↑ Day 1 @ #BethesdaGameDays
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Todd Howard PAX East 2019 Interview
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Reddit: Welcome to the Elsweyr & Update 22 AUA
- ↑ ESO Live - Episode 15
- ↑ A Letter to the Community from ESO's Loremaster
- ↑ ESO Live - Introducing Loremaster Leamon Tuttle
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Leamon Tuttle Loremaster Interview
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 The Tel Mora Independent Press: Interview with Loremaster Leamon Tuttle
- ↑ The Elder Scrolls Online on Twitter (17 September 2012)
- ↑ The Elder Scrolls Online on Twitter (27 September 2012)
- ↑ The Elder Scrolls Online on Twitter (7 November 2012)
- ↑ The Elder Scrolls Online on Twitter (26 August 2013)
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Cartogriffi's Posts
- ↑ General:Douglas Goodall Interview
- ↑ Reddit: I am Michael Kirkbride. Ask Me Anything.
- ↑ Reddit: How to tell between the fanfic and actual lore posted here?
- ↑ The Imperial Library Forums: Amulet of Kings
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Ted Peterson's Posts
- ↑ Interview With Three Writers
- ↑ Les 20 Ans Des Tes En Interview
- ↑ Leamon Tuttle on Twitter